peer-reviewed papers


clinical trials

Our published research

In 2007, we published our foundational article describing the development and initial validation of the GAI. To date, that article has over 650 citations (Pachana et al., 2007) and since then, accumulated citations have continued to increase year on year.

Foundation articles

Pachana, N. A., Byrne, G. J., Siddle, H., Koloski, N., Harley, E., & Arnold, E. (2007). Development and validation of the Geriatric Anxiety InventoryInternational psychogeriatrics19(1), 103-114.

Byrne, G. J., & Pachana, N. A. (2011). Development and validation of a short form of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory-the GAI-SFInternational Psychogeriatrics23(1), 125.

Psychometric data

Bendixen, A. B., Hartberg, C. B., Selbæk, G., & Engedal, K. (2016). Symptoms of anxiety in older adults with depression, dementia, or psychosis: a principal component analysis of the geriatric anxiety inventoryDementia and geriatric cognitive disorders42(5-6), 310-322.

Gould, C. E., Segal, D. L., Yochim, B. P., Pachana, N. A., Byrne, G. J., & Beaudreau, S. A. (2014). Measuring anxiety in late life: a psychometric examination of the geriatric anxiety inventory and geriatric anxiety scaleJournal of Anxiety Disorders28(8), 804-811.

Molde, H., Hynninen, K. M., Torsheim, T., Bendixen, A. B., Engedal, K., Pachana, N. A., & Nordhus, I. H. (2017). A Bifactor and item response analysis of the geriatric anxiety inventoryInternational psychogeriatrics29(10), 1647.

Therrien, Z., & Hunsley, J. (2012). Assessment of anxiety in older adults: a systematic review of commonly used measuresAging & mental health16(1), 1-16.

Byrne, G. J., Pachana, N. A., Goncalves, D. C., Arnold, E., King, R., & Keat Khoo, S. (2010). Psychometric properties and health correlates of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in Australian community-residing older womenAging & Mental Health14(3), 247-254.

Johnco, C., Knight, A., Tadic, D., & Wuthrich, V. M. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and its short-form (GAI-SF) in a clinical and non-clinical sample of older adultsInternational Psychogeriatrics27(7), 1089-1097.

Diefenbach, G. J., Bragdon, L. B., & Blank, K. (2014). Geriatric anxiety inventory: factor structure and associations with cognitive statusThe American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry22(12), 1418-1426.

Molde, H. Nordhus, I.H., Torsheim, T., Engedal, K., Bendixen, Byrne, G.J., Márquez-González, M., Losada, A., Feng, L., Ow, E.K.T., Pisitsungkagarn, K., Taephant, N., Jarukasemthawee, S., Champagne, A., Landreville, P., Gosselin, P., Ribeiro, O., PhD,12, Diefenbach, G.J., PhD,13 Blank, K., Beaudreau, S.A., Laks, J., Bom de Araújo, N., PhD,15 Fonseca, R.P., Kochhann, R., Camozzato, A., van den Brink, R., Fluiter, M., Naarding, P., Pelzers, L.P.R.M., Lugtenburg, A., Oude Voshaar, R., & Pachana, N.A. (2020). A cross-national analysis of the psychometric properties of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI). Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 75(7), 1475-1483.

Use in specialised populations

Kneebone, I. I., Fife-Schaw, C., Lincoln, N. B., & Harder, H. (2016). A study of the validity and the reliability of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in screening for anxiety after stroke in older inpatientsClinical Rehabilitation30(12), 1220-1228.

Gerolimatos, L. A., Gregg, J. J., & Edelstein, B. A. (2013). Assessment of anxiety in long-term care: examination of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and its short formInternational Psychogeriatrics25(9), 1533.

Diefenbach, G. J., Tolin, D. F., Meunier, S. A., & Gilliam, C. M. (2009). Assessment of anxiety in older home care recipientsThe Gerontologist49(2), 141-153.

Boddice, G., Pachana, N. A., & Byrne, G. J. (2008). The clinical utility of the geriatric anxiety inventory in older adults with cognitive impairmentNursing older people20(8).

Matheson, S. F., Byrne, G. J., Dissanayaka, N. N., Pachana, N. A., Mellick, G. D., O’Sullivan, J. D., … & Marsh, R. (2012). Validity and reliability of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in Parkinson’s diseaseAustralasian Journal on Ageing31(1), 13-16.

Rozzini, L., Chilovi, B. V., Peli, M., Conti, M., Rozzini, R., Trabucchi, M., & Padovani, A. (2009). Anxiety symptoms in mild cognitive impairmentInternational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: A journal of the psychiatry of late life and allied sciences24(3), 300-305.

Goodarzi, Z., Samii, L., Azeem, F., Sekhon, R., Crites, S., Pringsheim, T., … & Holroyd‐Leduc, J. (2019). Detection of anxiety symptoms in persons with dementia: A systematic reviewAlzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring11(1), 340-347.

Stanley, M. A., Calleo, J., Bush, A. L., Wilson, N., Snow, A. L., Kraus-Schuman, C., … & Kunik, M. E. (2013). The Peaceful Mind program: A pilot test of a cognitive–behavioral therapy–based intervention for anxious patients with DementiaThe American journal of geriatric psychiatry21(7), 696-708.

Clinical trial data

Ball, S. G., Lipsius, S., & Escobar, R. (2015). Validation of the geriatric anxiety inventory in a duloxetine clinical trial for elderly adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

Wuthrich, V. M., Rapee, R. M., Kangas, M., & Perini, S. (2016). Randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy compared to a discussion group for co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adultsPsychological Medicine46(4), 785.

Jones, S. L., Hadjistavropoulos, H. D., & Soucy, J. N. (2016). A randomized controlled trial of guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for older adults with generalized anxietyJournal of anxiety disorders37, 1-9.

Klainin-Yobas, P., Kowitlawakul, Y., Lopez, V., Tang, C. T., Hoek, K. E., Gan, G. L., … & Mahendran, R. (2019). The effects of mindfulness and health education programs on the emotional state and cognitive function of elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trialJournal of Clinical Neuroscience68, 211-217.

Kunik, M. E., Stanley, M. A., Shrestha, S., Ramsey, D., Richey, S., Snow, L., … & Amspoker, A. B. (2020). Aggression prevention training for individuals with dementia and their caregivers: a randomized controlled trialThe American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry28(6), 662-672.

Wuthrich, V. M., Rapee, R. M., Draper, B., Brodaty, H., Lee-Fay, L., & Naismith, S. L. (2019). Reducing risk factors for cognitive decline through psychological interventions: a pilot randomized controlled trialInternational psychogeriatrics31(7), 1015-1025.

Pachana, N. A., & Byrne, G. J. (2012). The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory: international use and future directionsAustralian Psychologist, 47(1), 33-38.

Massena, P. N., de Araújo, N. B., Pachana, N., Laks, J., & de Pádua, A. C. (2015). Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese Version of Geriatric Anxiety Inventory-GAI-BRInternational Psychogeriatrics27(7), 1113.

Ribeiro, O., Paúl, C., Simões, M. R., & Firmino, H. (2011). Portuguese version of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory: Transcultural adaptation and psychometric validationAging & Mental Health15(6), 742-748.

Márquez-González, M., Losada, A., Fernández-Fernández, V., & Pachana, N. A. (2012). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Geriatric Anxiety InventoryInternational Psychogeriatrics24(1), 137.

Yan, Y., Xin, T., Wang, D., & Tang, D. (2014). Application of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory-Chinese Version (GAI-CV) to older people in Beijing communitiesInternational psychogeriatrics26(3), 517.

Ferrari, S., Signorelli, M. S., Cerrato, F., Pingani, L., Massimino, M., Valente, S., … & Atti, A. R. (2017). Never too late to be anxious: validation of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, Italian versionClin Ter168(2), e120-e127.

Martiny C, Cardoso de Oliveira, A., Nardi, A.E., & Pachana, N.A. (2011). Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian version of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI). Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, 38(1), 8-12.

Lin, X., Haralambous, B., Pachana, N., Bryant, C., Logiudice, D., Goh, A., & Dow, B. (2016). Screening for depression and anxiety among older Chinese immigrants living in Western countries: The use of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI)Asia-Pacific Psychiatry, 8(1), 32-43.

Dow, B., Lin, X., Pachana, N.A., Bryant, C., LoGiudice, D., Goh, A., & Haralambous, B. (2018). Reliability, concurrent validity and cultural adaptation of the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory for detecting depression and anxiety symptoms amongst older Chinese immigrants: an Australian study. International Psychogeriatrics, 30(5), 735-748.

Heissler, R., Kopeček, M., Pachana, N.A., Franková, V., & Štěpánková Georgi, H. (2018). Inventář Geriatrické úzkosti (GAI) a jeho zkrácená verze GAI-SF: Česká normativní studie [Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and its short form GAI-SF: Czech normative study]Československá psychologie62(5), 462-476.

Shati, M., Mortazavi, S., Malakouti, S.K., Norouzi, A., Mehravaran, S., & Pachana, N.A. (2019). Psychometric properties of the new Persian version of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and its short form. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 118.

Daniel, F., Vicente, H., Guadalupe, S., Silva, A., & Espirito Santo, H. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the geriatric anxiety inventory in a sample of eldery people in residential care. Revista Portuguesa de Investigação Comportamental e Social1(2), 15-30.